Optimal Control Pressure for Leakage Minimization in Water Distribution Systems Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

Document Type: Original Article


M.Sc. Student, Civil Engineering in Water Resources Management and Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran.


One of the key factors affecting leakage in water distribution systems is network pressure management by putting Pressure Reduce Valves (PRV) in the flow path and optimal regulation of these vales in water networks. This study aimed at investigating optimal pressure management problems so as to minimize leakage in water distribution networks. To do so, an approach was proposed for both optimal positioning and setting of pressure reduction valves (PRVs), where location optimization and optimal operation issue of valves was considered. In the present research, in order to resolve these problems, an optimization model—a simulation based on a Meta heuristic algorithms called as Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA)—was utilized. In this model, ICA optimization in MATLAB environment was integrated with hydraulic simulation of EPANET model. The results revealed that in case all the limitations of the problem are observed, employing this method to determine the position of the pressure reduction valves and regulate them lowered the mean leakage rate of the network by 12% in three phases of maximum, average and minimum aquatic need periods. This means that the proposed method was effective in regulating the pressure level to minimize leakage in networks.


پورکاظمی،ح. م. فتاحی، س. مظاهری، ب. اسدی. (1392). بهینه‌سازی سبد پروژه‌های با اثر متقابل با استفاده از الگوریتم رقابت استعماری، مجله مدیریت صنعتی، دوره 5 ، شماره 1، ص 1-20.

تابش، م .، واسطی، م. ( 1385 ). کاهش میزان نشت در شبکه‌های توزیع آب شهری از طریق حداقل نمودن فشار اضافی در شبکه. پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد- گرایش مهندسی عمران آب- دانشکده فنی دانشگاه تهران.

Araujo, L. S., Ramos, H., and Coelho, S. T. (2006). Pressure control for leakage minimisation in water distribution systems management. Journal of Water Resources Management, 20, 133-149.

Atashpaz-Gargari. E., Hashemzadeh. F., Rajabioun. R. and Lucas. C., (2008). Colonial Competitive Algorithm, a novel approach for PID controller design in MIMO distillation column process. International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2008, pp. 337–355.

Committee for the Vigilance on the Use of Water Resources (COVIRI). (2006). Relazione annuale al Parlamento sullo stato dei servizi idrici. Anno 2005. Autorità di Vigilanza sulle risorse idriche e sui rifiuti (in Italian).

Jowitt, P. W., and Xu, C. (1990). Optimal valve control in water distribution networks. J. Water Resour. Plann. Manage., 116(4), 455–472.

Nicolini, M. (2011).Optimal pressure management in water networks: Increased efficiency and reduced energy costs. Defense Science Research Conference and Expo (DSR), IEEE, Singapore,1-4.

Nicolini, M., and Zovatto, L. (2009).Optimal location and control of pressure reducing valves in water networks. Journal of Water Resources Planning andManagement, 135(3), 178-187.

Roshani, E., & Filion, Y. (2014). WDS leakage management through pressure control and pipes rehabilitation using an optimization approach. Procedia Engineering, 89, 21-28.

Rossman, L. A. (2000). Epanet 2, users manual, EPA/600/R-00/057, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

Saldarriaga, J., & Salcedo, C. A. (2015). Determination of Optimal Location and Settings of Pressure Reducing Valves in Water Distribution Networks for Minimizing Water Losses. Procedia Engineering, 119, 973-983.

Thornton, J. and Lambert, A. (2005). Progress in practical prediction of pressure: Leakage, pressure: Burst frequency and pressure: Consumption relationships. Proceedings of IWA Special Conference 'Leakage 2005', Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada